Nigeria is confronted by multiple security challenges, notably the resilient Boko Haram Islamist insurgency in the north east, long-running discontent and militancy in the Niger Delta, increasing violence between herders and farming communities spreading from the central belt southward, and separatist Biafra agitation in the Igbo south east. Violence, particularly by the Boko Haram insurgency, has displaced more than two million people, created a massive humanitarian crisis, and prompted the rise of civilian vigilante self-defence groups that pose new policy dilemmas and possible security risks (International Crisis Group). The humanitarian crisis in Borno, Adamawa and Yobe states in Nigeria’s north-east, that has spilled over into the Lake Chad region, remains among the most severe humanitarian crises in the world today. The number of people in need of urgent assistance rose from 7.1 million in 2019 to 7.9 million in 2020, most of them being women and children (UNOCHA).