The first direct peace talks between the Taliban and the Afghan government began in Doha, Qatar, in September 2020. The United States agreed with the Taliban to remove combat forces in exchange for Taliban guarantees on counterterrorism and starting negotiations with the Afghan government on a political settlement and a cease-fire. Now U.S. forces will leave by September 11, 2021 — although without a cease-fire or a framework for a political settlement. The peace process remains a stalled but necessary process to achieve lasting stability in Afghanistan. Meanwhile, the Taliban, Afghan government and international forces continue to battle for control of the countryside, with both battle deaths and civilian casualties near record highs in recent years. USIP



US Exit from Afghanistan

Alliances and Factions

Historical Conditions

Relationship to Pakistan

Aid Efforts